A place to discuss:  Bitcoin hard forks,  the process by which HFs are proposed and assessed,  the impact of HFs on the Bitcoin community.
This is the official subreddit of Monero (XMR), a secure, private, untraceable currency that is open-source and freely available to all.
Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ
You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper
however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following videos for a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Some other great resources include Lopp.net
, the Princeton crypto series
and James D'Angelo's Bitcoin 101 Blackboard series
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found at the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute
Some Bitcoin statistics can be found here
. Developer resources can be found here
. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here
Potential upcoming protocol improvements and scaling resources here
The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here
Key properties of Bitcoin
- Limited Supply - There will only ever be 21,000,000 bitcoins created and they are issued in a predictable fashion, you can view the inflation schedule here. Once they are all issued Bitcoin will be truly deflationary. The halving countdown can be found here.
- Open source - Bitcoin code is fully auditable. You can read the source code yourself here.
- Accountable - The public ledger is transparent, all transactions are seen by everyone.
- Decentralized - Bitcoin is globally distributed across thousands of nodes with no single point of failure and as such can't be shut down similar to how Bittorrent works. You can even run a node on a Raspberry Pi.
- Censorship resistant - No one can prevent you from interacting with the bitcoin network and no one can censor, alter or block transactions that they disagree with, see Operation Chokepoint.
- Push system - There are no chargebacks in bitcoin because only the person who owns the address where the bitcoins reside has the authority to move them.
- Low fee scaling - On chain transaction fees depend on network demand and how much priority you wish to assign to the transaction. Most wallets calculate on chain fees automatically but you can view current fees here and mempool activity here. On chain fees may rise occasionally due to network demand, however instant micropayments that do not require confirmations are happening via the Lightning Network, a second layer scaling solution currently rolling out on the Bitcoin mainnet.
- Borderless - No country can stop it from going in/out, even in areas currently unserved by traditional banking as the ledger is globally distributed.
- Trustless - Bitcoin solved the Byzantine's Generals Problem which means nobody needs to trust anybody for it to work.
- Pseudonymous - No need to expose personal information when purchasing with cash or transacting.
- Secure - Encrypted cryptographically and can’t be brute forced or confiscated with proper key management such as hardware wallets.
- Programmable - Individual units of bitcoin can be programmed to transfer based on certain criteria being met
- Nearly instant - From a few seconds to a few minutes depending on need for confirmations. Transactions are irreversible after one or more confirmations.
- Peer-to-peer - No intermediaries with a cut, no need for trusted third parties.
- Portable - Bitcoins are digital so they are easier to move than cash or gold. They can even be transported by simply memorizing a string of words for wallet recovery (while cool this method is generally not recommended due to potential for insecure key generation by inexperienced users. Hardware wallets are the preferred method for new users due to ease of use and additional security).
- Scalable - While the protocol is still being optimized for increased transaction capacity, blockchains do not scale very well, so most transaction volume is expected to occur on Layer 2 networks built on top of Bitcoin.
- Divisible - Each bitcoin can be divided down to 8 decimals, which means you don't have to worry about buying an entire bitcoin.
- Designed Money - Bitcoin was created to fit all the fundamental properties of money better than gold or fiat
Where can I buy bitcoins? Bitcoin.org
are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources
for a larger list of options for purchases. Here
is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage
Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price
people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev
is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".
Securing your bitcoins
With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank"
and personally secure your bitcoins OR
you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks"
which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
- If you prefer to "Be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, then you will need to create your own wallet and keep it secure. If you want easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices, then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor, Ledger or ColdCard is recommended. Alternatively there are many software wallet options to choose from here depending on your use case.
- If you prefer to let third party "Bitcoin banks" manage your coins, try Gemini but be aware you may not be in control of your private keys in which case you would have to ask permission to access your funds and be exposed to third party risk.
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Watch out for scams
As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".
Where can I spend bitcoins?
Check out spendabit
or bitcoin directory
for millions of merchant options. Also you can spend bitcoin anywhere visa is accepted with bitcoin debit cards such as the CashApp card
. Some other useful site are listed below.
|Store ||Product |
|Gyft ||Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc. |
|Spendabit, Overstock and The Bitcoin Directory ||Retail shopping with millions of results |
|ShakePay ||Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds |
|NewEgg and Dell ||For all your electronics needs |
|Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Coinsfer, and more ||Bill payment |
|Menufy, Takeaway and Thuisbezorgd NL ||Takeout delivered to your door |
|Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia, Abitsky, SkyTours, the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats ||For when you need to get away |
|Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA ||VPN services |
|Namecheap, Porkbun ||Domain name registration |
|Stampnik ||Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage |
are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk
There are also lots of charities
which accept bitcoin donations.
There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
- 1-3% savings over credit cards or PayPal.
- No chargebacks (final settlement in 10 minutes as opposed to 3+ months).
- Accept business from a global customer base.
- Increased privacy.
- Convert 100% of the sale to the currency of your choice for deposit to your account, or choose to keep a percentage of the sale in bitcoin if you wish to begin accumulating it.
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;
Can I mine bitcoin?
Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home
. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here
. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining
would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node
using this setup guide
. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options
. You can view the global node distribution here
Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
|Site ||Description |
|WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, Cryptogrind, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, BitforTip, Rein Project ||Freelancing |
|Lolli ||Earn bitcoin when you shop online! |
|OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market ||Marketplaces |
|/GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW ||Adult services |
|A-ads, Coinzilla.io ||Advertising |
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket
by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins.
The following is a short
list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
|Unit ||Symbol ||Value ||Info |
|bitcoin ||BTC ||1 bitcoin ||one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis |
|millibitcoin ||mBTC ||1,000 per bitcoin ||used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases |
|bit ||bit ||1,000,000 per bitcoin ||colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC) |
|satoshi ||sat ||100,000,000 per bitcoin ||smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor |
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
- 0.001 BTC
- 1 mBTC
- 1,000 bits
- 100k sats
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki
. Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit.
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/184.108.40.206 submitted by
Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.
Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER
the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE
October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.
Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.
The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!
Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.
- Network magnitude unit pinned to a static value of 0.25
- Max research reward allowed per block raised to 16384 GRC (from 12750 GRC)
- New CPIDs begin accruing research rewards from the first superblock that contains the CPID instead of from the time of the beacon advertisement
- 500 GRC research reward limit for a CPID's first stake
- 6-month expiration for unclaimed rewards
- 10-block spacing requirement between research reward claims
- Rolling 5-day payment-per-day limit
- Legacy tolerances for floating-point error and time drift
- The need to include a valid copy of a CPID's magnitude in a claim
- 10-block emission adjustment interval for the magnitude unit
- One-time beacon activation requires that participants temporarily change their usernames to a verification code at one whitelisted BOINC project
- Verification codes of pending beacons expire after 3 days
- Self-service beacon removal
- Burn fee for beacon advertisement increased from 0.00001 GRC to 0.5 GRC
- Rain addresses derived from beacon keys instead of a default wallet address
- Beacon expiration determined as of the current block instead of the previous block
- The ability for developers to remove beacons
- The ability to sign research reward claims with non-current but unexpired beacons
As a reminder:
- Beacons expire after 6 months pass (180 days)
- Beacons can be renewed after 5 months pass (150 days)
- Renewed beacons must be signed with the same key as the original beacon
- Magnitudes less than 1 include two fractional places
- Magnitudes greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 include one fractional place
- A valid superblock must match a scraper convergence
- Superblock popularity election mechanics
- Yes/no/abstain and single-choice response types (no user-facing support yet)
- To create a poll, a maximum of 250 UTXOs for a single address must add up to 100000 GRC. These are selected from the largest downwards.
- Burn fee for creating polls scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
- 50 GRC for a poll contract
- 0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
- Burn fee for casting votes scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
- 0.01 GRC for a vote contract
- 0.01 GRC to claim magnitude
- 0.01 GRC per claimed address
- 0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
- Maximum length of a poll title: 80 characters
- Maximum length of a poll question: 100 characters
- Maximum length of a poll discussion website URL: 100 characters
- Maximum number of poll choices: 20
- Maximum length of a poll choice label: 100 characters
- Magnitude, CPID count, and participant count poll weight types
- The ability for developers to remove polls and votes
[220.127.116.11] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"
- Backport newer uint256 types from Bitcoin #1570 (@cyrossignol)
- Implement project level rain for rainbymagnitude #1580 (@jamescowens)
- Upgrade utilities (Update checker and snapshot downloadeapplication) #1576 (@iFoggz)
- Provide fees collected in the block by the miner #1601 (@iFoggz)
- Add support for generating legacy superblocks from scraper stats #1603 (@cyrossignol)
- Port of the Bitcoin Logger to Gridcoin #1600 (@jamescowens)
- Implement zapwallettxes #1605 (@jamescowens)
- Implements a global event filter to suppress help question mark #1609 (@jamescowens)
- Add next target difficulty to RPC output #1615 (@cyrossignol)
- Add caching for block hashes to CBlock #1624 (@cyrossignol)
- Make toolbars and tray icon red for testnet #1637 (@jamescowens)
- Add an rpc call convergencereport #1643 (@jamescowens)
- Implement newline filter on config file read in #1645 (@jamescowens)
- Implement beacon status icon/button #1646 (@jamescowens)
- Add gridcointestnet.png #1649 (@caraka)
- Add precision to support magnitudes less than 1 #1651 (@cyrossignol)
- Replace research accrual calculations with superblock snapshots #1657 (@cyrossignol)
- Publish example gridcoinresearch.conf as a md document to the doc directory #1662 (@jamescowens)
- Add options checkbox to disable transaction notifications #1666 (@jamescowens)
- Add support for self-service beacon deletion #1695 (@cyrossignol)
- Add support for type-specific contract fee amounts #1698 (@cyrossignol)
- Add verifiedbeaconreport and pendingbeaconreport #1696 (@jamescowens)
- Add preliminary testing option for block v11 height on testnet #1706 (@cyrossignol)
- Add verified beacons manifest part to superblock validator #1711 (@cyrossignol)
- Implement beacon, vote, and superblock display categories/icons in UI transaction model #1717 (@jamescowens)
- neuralnet: Add integrity checking to researcher accrual snapshot registry #1727 (@jamescowens)
- Add workaround for scrypt assembly on macOS #1740 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Build onboarding/beacon wizard #1739 (@cyrossignol)
- doc: Add CONTRIBUTING.md from bitcoin #1723 (@div72)
- rpc: Implement inspectaccrualsnapshot and parseaccrualsnapshotfile #1744 (@jamescowens)
- scraper: Add disk based state backing for verified beacon list in scraper #1751 (@jamescowens)
- Add ability to recover beacon in block version 11+ #1768 (@cyrossignol)
- refactor: Add transaction context to contract handlers #1777 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Add context for when BOINC is attached to a pool #1775 (@cyrossignol)
- doc: Clarify what to do if PR in multiple categories (for CONTRIBUTING.md) #1798 (@RoboticMind)
- qt: Add option to choose not to start the wallet minimized #1804 (@jamescowens)
- superblock: Add check for OutOfSyncByAge to SuperblockValidator::Validate #1806 (@jamescowens)
- contract: Standardize contract validation and add block context #1808 (@cyrossignol)
- add seed.gridcoin.pl to default config #1812 (@wilkart)
- gui: Implement sidestake send display #1813 (@jamescowens)
- gui: Add pool/investor pages to researcher wizard #1819 (@cyrossignol)
- ci: Port lint scripts from Bitcoin #1823 (@div72)
- doc: Create basic readme in contrib #1826 (@RoboticMind)
- gui: Implement TransactionRecord::Message #1829 (@jamescowens)
- rpc: Add private_key_available to beaconstatus #1833 (@a123b)
- gui: Validate email address in researcher wizard #1840 (@a123b)
- rpc: Add "getrawwallettransaction" RPC function #1842 (@cyrossignol)
- consensus: Set block version 11 threshold height for mainnet #1862 (@cyrossignol)
- Upgrade LevelDB from v1.17 to v1.20 #1562 (@cyrossignol)
- Re-enable scrypt optimizations #1450 (@denravonska)
- Derive CScript from prevector type (optimization) #1554 (@cyrossignol)
- Disable quorum for grandfathered blocks to speed up sync #1568 (@cyrossignol)
- Refactor hashBoinc for binary claim contexts #1558 (@cyrossignol)
- integrated_scraper_2 branch tracking PR #1559 (@jamescowens)
- Upgrade depends - OpenSSL to 1.1.1d #1581 (@jamescowens)
- Ubuntu 19.10 fixes #1590 (@denravonska)
- Force a re-parse of legacy claims in generated blocks #1592 (@cyrossignol)
- Improve the "versionreport" RPC output #1595 (@cyrossignol)
- Overhaul the core tally and accrual system #1583 (@cyrossignol)
- Overhaul the superblock quorum system #1597 (@cyrossignol)
- Add more data to the "superblocks" RPC output #1599 (@cyrossignol)
- Update Windows Build doc #1606 (@barton2526)
- Change the order of calls in gridcoinresearchd.cpp to optimize rpc shunt path #1610 (@jamescowens)
- Change staking tooltip to display frequency #1611 (@jamescowens)
- Enhancements to ETTS #1442 (@jamescowens)
- Standardize money values as integers #1614 (@cyrossignol)
- Clean up and optimize legacy coin age code #1616 (@cyrossignol)
- Some scraper cleanups #1620 (@jamescowens)
- Reorganize accrual code and fix 6-month cutoff #1630 (@cyrossignol)
- Update Copyright years #1633 (@barton2526)
- Change team whitelist delimiter to <> for CPID detection #1634 (@cyrossignol)
- Change team whitelist separator to <> to accomodate more team names #1632 (@jamescowens)
- Change Curl download speed type to support older environments #1640 (@cyrossignol)
- Optimize logo SVGs used for tray icons #1638 (@cyrossignol)
- Tweak consolidateunspent rpc function #1644 (@jamescowens)
- ETTS and staking icon enhancements #1650 (@jamescowens)
- Implement new transaction fees for block version 11 #1652 (@jamescowens)
- Optimize in-memory storage of superblock data #1653 (@cyrossignol)
- Miscellaneous superblock API improvements and housekeeping #1654 (@cyrossignol)
- Update openssl to 1.1.1f compatibility #1660 (@jamescowens)
- Optimize bdb to avoid synchronous flush of database #1659 (@jamescowens)
- Add support for CPID input to "lifetime" RPC function #1668 (@cyrossignol)
- Overhaul the contract handling system #1669 (@cyrossignol)
- Make the autostart mainnet/testnet aware #1671 (@jamescowens)
- Remove slashes from User Agent in peers tab #1674 (@div72)
- Refactor contracts for polymorphic binary payloads #1676 (@cyrossignol)
- Overhaul the beacon system #1678 (@cyrossignol)
- Replace boost::optional with non-owning pointers #1680 (@cyrossignol)
- Optimize proof-of-stake validation #1681 (@cyrossignol)
- Updated Slack link #1683 (@NeuralMiner)
- Update build-unix.md #1686 (@Quezacoatl1)
- Replace deprecated QT methods #1693 (@Pythonix)
- Made protocol.h more similar to bitcoin #1688 (@Pythonix)
- Touch up some details for block version 11 #1697 (@cyrossignol)
- More tweaks for block version 11 #1700 (@cyrossignol)
- Finish the conversion to the BCLog class based logger #1699 (@jamescowens)
- Move claim version transitional code in miner for proper signature #1712 (@cyrossignol)
- doc: Update threads in coding.txt #1730 (@div72)
- qt: Include QPainterPath in trafficgraphwidget.cpp #1733 (@div72)
- doc: Update doc/build-unix.md #1731 (@div72)
- gui: Show peers tab on connections icon click #1734 (@div72)
- refactor: Change return type of IsMine to isminetype && move wallet files to wallet directory #1722 (@div72)
- build: Updates boost to 1.73.0 for depends #1673 (@jamescowens)
- doc: Update Unit Test Readme #1743 (@RoboticMind)
- wallet: Change Assert To Error Message In kernel.cpp #1748 (@RoboticMind)
- scraper: Shorten display representation of verification codes #1754 (@cyrossignol)
- log: Change ".B." to Clear Message #1758 (@RoboticMind)
- util: Fix braindamage in GetDefaultDataDir() #1737 (@jamescowens)
- scraper: Improve scraper processing of beacon verifications #1760 (@jamescowens)
- scraper: Add instrumentation to convergencereport #1763 (@jamescowens)
- rpc: Improve rpc stress test script #1767 (@tunisiano187)
- Generalize enum serialization #1770 (@cyrossignol)
- scraper: Improve handling of ETags in http class and tweak verified beacon logic #1776 (@jamescowens)
- scraper: Improve ProcessNetworkWideFromProjectStats and other tweaks #1778 (@jamescowens)
- researcher: Automate beacon advertisement for renewals only #1781 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Tweak behavior of beacon page in researcher wizard #1784 (@cyrossignol)
- Prepare for block version 11 hard-fork on testnet #1787 (@cyrossignol)
- scraper: Modify UpdateVerifiedBeaconsFromConsensus #1791 (@jamescowens)
- gui: Optimize OverviewPage::updateTransactions() #1794 (@jamescowens)
- ci: Adopt ci changes from Bitcoin #1795 (@div72)
- consensus: switch snapshot accrual calculation to integer arithmetic #1799 (@cyrossignol)
- voting: Overhaul the voting system #1809 (@cyrossignol)
- contract: Optimize contract replay after chain reorganization #1815 (@cyrossignol)
- contract: Reimplement transaction messages as contracts #1816 (@cyrossignol)
- staking: Sign claim contracts with coinstake transaction #1817 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Change research wizard text #1820 (@div72)
- net: Update protocol version and clean up net messaging #1824 (@cyrossignol)
- rpc, wallet: Corrections to GetAmounts #1825 (@jamescowens)
- gui: Tweak some minor researcher wizard details #1830 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Change GetEstimatedStakingFrequency text #1836 (@jamescowens)
- scraper: Scraper global statistics cache optimization #1837 (@jamescowens)
- doc: Update Vulnerability Response Process #1843 (@RoboticMind)
- scraper: Optimization of manifest and parts sharing between ConvergedScraperStatsCache, mapManifest, and mapParts #1851 (@jamescowens)
- consensus: Update Checkpoints #1855 (@barton2526)
- docs: Update docs to build off master #1856 (@barton2526)
- gui: Fix and improve GUI combo box styles #1858 (@cyrossignol)
- build: Tweak Gridcoin installer for Fern release #1863 (@jamescowens)
- Remove old research age checks (rebase #1365) #1572 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove PrimaryCPID check from diagnostics dialog #1586 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove missed label for PrimaryCPID from diagnostics #1588 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove legacy quorum messaging system (@neural network) #1589 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove old remnants of legacy smart contract experiments #1594 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove block nonce for version 11 #1622 (@cyrossignol)
- Delete obsolete contrib/Installer and Upgrader directories #1623 (@jamescowens)
- Remove redundant LoadAdminMessages() calls #1625 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove some legacy informational RPC commands #1658 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove informational magnitude field from binary claims #1661 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove fDebug3,4, and net and convert to BCLog::LogFlags #1663 (@jamescowens)
- Remove qt5.7.1 depends support build System #1665 (@iFoggz)
- Remove unused jQuery library #1679 (@cyrossignol)
- Remove unused NetworkTimer() function and global state #1701 (@cyrossignol)
- Refactor claim context objects into contracts #1704 (@cyrossignol)
- Clean old assets up #1718 (@div72)
- Remove legacy "rain" RPC (not by-project rain) #1742 (@cyrossignol)
- Temporarily disable voting system on testnet #1769 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Remove legacy GUI transaction description for contracts #1772 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Remove transaction fee setting #1780 (@cyrossignol)
- trivial: Cleanup unused legacy functions #1793 (@cyrossignol)
- mining, rpc: Remove kernel-diff-best and kernel-diff-sum #1796 (@jamescowens)
- refactor: Remove libs subdirectory #1802 (@div72)
- scraper: cleanup unused/unnecessary functions #1803 (@jamescowens)
- gui: Remove useless "Detach databases at shutdown" #1810 (@jamescowens)
- test: Remove testnet condition for standard transactions #1814 (@cyrossignol)
- consensus: Remove transitional testnet code #1854 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix "Owed" amount in output of "magnitude" RPC method #1569 (@cyrossignol)
- Add support for paths with special characters on Windows #1571 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix lingering peers.dat temp files and clean up remaining paths #1582 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix incorrect beacon length warning in GUI transaction list #1585 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix default config file line endings on Windows #1587 (@cyrossignol)
- Reenable Travis builds for MacOS #1591 (@jamescowens)
- Correct peer detail info background color #1593 (@jamescowens)
- Fix exception in debug3 mode #1598 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix deadlock in "getmininginfo" RPC function #1596 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix accuracy of statistics in "network" RPC output #1602 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix heights for quorum vote weight calculations #1604 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix deadlock in log archiver when rename fails #1607 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix a spurious segmentation fault during client load on Windows with fast CPUs #1608 (@jamescowens)
- Fix lock order debugging and potential deadlocks #1612 (@jamescowens)
- Add dependencies #1613 (@Scalextrix)
- Fix std namespace pollution #1617 (@denravonska)
- Add missing condition for newbie accrual computer #1618 (@cyrossignol)
- Track first reward blocks in research accounts #1619 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix lingering beacon warning after advertisement #1627 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix accrual calculation for new, zero-magnitude CPIDs #1636 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix diagnostics, add ETTS test, fix tooltipcolor, add missing lock, and add email=investor check #1647 (@jamescowens)
- Fix help message of two RPC methods #1656 (@div72)
- Fix legacy accrual for newbie with non-zero past reward #1667 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix GUI autostart on Windows for paths with wide characters #1670 (@cyrossignol)
- Qualify boost bind placeholders with their full namespace #1672 (@Ponce)
- Fix suffix when copying txids #1677 (@div72)
- Unnecessary if-statement removed #1685 (@Pythonix)
- Fix consolidatemsunspent Help Message #1687 (@Pythonix)
- Fix gettransaction help message #1691 (@Pythonix)
- Fix GetNewMint To Look for Stakes #1692 (@RoboticMind)
- Suppress deprecated copy warnings for Qt with GCC 9+ #1702 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix exclusion error on stats processing and misplaced ENDLOCK logging entry #1710 (@jamescowens)
- Removed unnecessary comparison #1708 (@Pythonix)
- Fixed typo #1707 (@Pythonix)
- Fix out-of-bounds exception for peers tab version slashes #1713 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix transition for v1 superblocks when reorganizing #1714 (@cyrossignol)
- Touch up transition to version 2 transactions #1715 (@cyrossignol)
- Avoid mutating transactions in ConnectBlock() #1716 (@cyrossignol)
- Skip beacon advertisement when already pending #1726 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix Windows cross-compilation in newer environments #1728 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix out-of-bounds access in IsMineInner() #1736 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix a couple of block version 11 issues #1738 (@cyrossignol)
- Fix null pointer dereference in GUI researcher model #1741 (@cyrossignol)
- accrual: Reset research accounts when rebuilding accrual snapshots #1745 (@cyrossignol)
- scraper: Correct update for verified beacons #1747 (@jamescowens)
- accrual: Refactor tally initialization for snapshot rebuild #1749 (@cyrossignol)
- rpc: Fix "cpid" field in "beaconconvergence" RPC output #1750 (@cyrossignol)
- accrual: Fix snapshot accrual superblock state transitions #1752 (@cyrossignol)
- scraper: Correct stale verified beacon logic #1753 (@jamescowens)
- rpc: Correct possible divide by zero in getblockstats #1755 (@jamescowens)
- gui: Fix issues with researcher wizard flow #1756 (@cyrossignol)
- wallet: Stop Error When Starting From Zero #1759 (@RoboticMind)
- Don't count empty email as explicit investor #1761 (@cyrossignol)
- accrual: Fix snapshot accrual superblock state transitions #1764 (@cyrossignol)
- rpc: Cleanup Help Message and Fix Typo #1771 (@RoboticMind)
- scraper: Fix scraper etag header case sensitivity #1773 (@cyrossignol)
- consensus: Use explicit time to check if superblock needed #1774 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Fix scroll area dark theme styles #1785 (@cyrossignol)
- rpc, gui: Fix three divide by zero possibilities #1789 (@jamescowens)
- rpc: Fix balance pre-check in "rainbymagnitude" RPC #1792 (@cyrossignol)
- accrual: Fix outdated comment and correct grammar #1800 (@RoboticMind)
- gui: Fix stuck cursor on labels #1801 (@div72)
- beacon: Fix research wizard beacon renewal status #1805 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Fix translations for port numbers #1818 (@cyrossignol)
- util: Create parent directory #1821 (@div72)
- mining: Fix coinstake/claim signature order #1828 (@cyrossignol)
- voting: Remove double increment in loop #1831 (@cyrossignol)
- neuralnet, scraper: Fix compilation with gcc5 and older libcurl #1832 (@a123b)
- wallet: Fix smallest coin selection for contracts #1841 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: Fix display of polls with no votes yet #1844 (@cyrossignol)
- gui: add indentation to diagnostic status bar labels #1849 (@jamescowens)
- voting, gui: Fix formatting and alignment of vote shares and percent #1850 (@jamescowens)
- wallet, rpc: Fix for self-transactions in listtransactions #1852 (@jamescowens)
- accrual: Clear any accrual snapshots when syncing from pre-v11 #1853 (@cyrossignol)
- accrual: Fix reset of accrual directory if starting sync below research age height #1857 (@jamescowens)
- gui: Fix researcher wizard layout on macOS with native theme #1860 (@cyrossignol)
I thought it would be really cool to have an ultimate guide for those new to crypto currencies and the terms used. I made this mostly for beginner’s and veterans alike. I’m not sure how much use you will get out of this. Stuff gets lost on Reddit quite easily so I hope this finds its way to you. Included in this list, I have included most of the terms used in crypto-communities. I have compiled this list from a multitude of sources. The list is in alphabetical order and may include some words/terms not exclusive to the crypto world but may be helpful regardless. 2FA
Two factor authentication. I highly advise that you use it. 51% Attack:
A situation where a single malicious individual or group gains control of more than half of a cryptocurrency network’s computing power. Theoretically, it could allow perpetrators to manipulate the system and spend the same coin multiple times, stop other users from completing blocks and make conflicting transactions to a chain that could harm the network. Address (or Addy):
A unique string of numbers and letters (both upper and lower case) used to send, receive or store cryptocurrency on the network. It is also the public key in a pair of keys needed to sign a digital transaction. Addresses can be shared publicly as a text or in the form of a scannable QR code. They differ between cryptocurrencies. You can’t send Bitcoin to an Ethereum address, for example. Altcoin (alternative coin):
Any digital currency other than Bitcoin. These other currencies are alternatives to Bitcoin regarding features and functionalities (e.g. faster confirmation time, lower price, improved mining algorithm, higher total coin supply). There are hundreds of altcoins, including Ether, Ripple, Litecoin and many many others. AIRDROP:
An event where the investors/participants are able to receive free tokens or coins into their digital wallet. AML:
Defines Anti-Money Laundering laws**.** ARBITRAGE:
Getting risk-free profits by trading (simultaneous buying and selling of the cryptocurrency) on two different exchanges which have different prices for the same asset. Ashdraked:
Being Ashdraked is essentially a more detailed version of being Zhoutonged. It is when you lose all of your invested capital, but you do so specifically by shorting Bitcoin. The expression “Ashdraked” comes from a story of a Romanian cryptocurrency investor who insisted upon shorting BTC, as he had done so successfully in the past. When the price of BTC rose from USD 300 to USD 500, the Romanian investor lost all of his money. ATH (All Time High):
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency in its entire history. Alternatively, ATL is all time low Bearish:
A tendency of prices to fall; a pessimistic expectation that the value of a coin is going to drop. Bear trap:
A manipulation of a stock or commodity by investors. Bitcoin:
The very first, and the highest ever valued, mass-market open source and decentralized cryptocurrency and digital payment system that runs on a worldwide peer to peer network. It operates independently of any centralized authorities Bitconnect:
One of the biggest scams in the crypto world. it was made popular in the meme world by screaming idiot Carlos Matos, who infamously proclaimed," hey hey heeeey” and “what's a what's a what's up wasssssssssuuuuuuuuuuuuup, BitConneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeect!”. He is now in the mentally ill meme hall of fame. Block:
A package of permanently recorded data about transactions occurring every time period (typically about 10 minutes) on the blockchain network. Once a record has been completed and verified, it goes into a blockchain and gives way to the next block. Each block also contains a complex mathematical puzzle with a unique answer, without which new blocks can’t be added to the chain. Blockchain:
An unchangeable digital record of all transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency and shared across thousands of computers worldwide. It has no central authority governing it. Records, or blocks, are chained to each other using a cryptographic signature. They are stored publicly and chronologically, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the term blockchain. Anyone can have access to the database and yet it remains incredibly difficult to hack. Bullish:
A tendency of prices to rise; an optimistic expectation that a specific cryptocurrency will do well and its value is going to increase. BTFD:
Buy the fucking dip. This advise was bestowed upon us by the gods themselves. It is the iron code to crypto enthusiasts. Bull market:
A market that Cryptos are going up. Consensus:
An agreement among blockchain participants on the validity of data. Consensus is reached when the majority of nodes on the network verify that the transaction is 100% valid. Crypto bubble:
The instability of cryptocurrencies in terms of price value Cryptocurrency:
A type of digital currency, secured by strong computer code (cryptography), that operates independently of any middlemen or central authoritie Cryptography:
The art of converting sensitive data into a format unreadable for unauthorized users, which when decoded would result in a meaningful statement. Cryptojacking:
The use of someone else’s device and profiting from its computational power to mine cryptocurrency without their knowledge and consent. Crypto-Valhalla:
When HODLers(holders) eventually cash out they go to a place called crypto-Valhalla. The strong will be separated from the weak and the strong will then be given lambos. DAO:
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. It defines A blockchain technology inspired organization or corporation that exists and operates without human intervention. Dapp (decentralized application):
An open-source application that runs and stores its data on a blockchain network (instead of a central server) to prevent a single failure point. This software is not controlled by the single body – information comes from people providing other people with data or computing power. Decentralized:
A system with no fundamental control authority that governs the network. Instead, it is jointly managed by all users to the system. Desktop wallet:
A wallet that stores the private keys on your computer, which allow the spending and management of your bitcoins. DILDO:
Long red or green candles. This is a crypto signal that tells you that it is not favorable to trade at the moment. Found on candlestick charts. Digital Signature:
An encrypted digital code attached to an electronic document to prove that the sender is who they say they are and confirm that a transaction is valid and should be accepted by the network. Double Spending:
An attack on the blockchain where a malicious user manipulates the network by sending digital money to two different recipients at exactly the same time. DYOR:
Means do your own research. Encryption:
Converting data into code to protect it from unauthorized access, so that only the intended recipient(s) can decode it. Eskrow:
the practice of having a third party act as an intermediary in a transaction. This third party holds the funds on and sends them off when the transaction is completed. Ethereum:
Ethereum is an open source, public, blockchain-based platform that runs smart contracts and allows you to build dapps on it. Ethereum is fueled by the cryptocurrency Ether. Exchange:
A platform (centralized or decentralized) for exchanging (trading) different forms of cryptocurrencies. These exchanges allow you to exchange cryptos for local currency. Some popular exchanges are Coinbase, Bittrex, Kraken and more. Faucet:
A website which gives away free cryptocurrencies. Fiat money:
Fiat currency is legal tender whose value is backed by the government that issued it, such as the US dollar or UK pound. Fork:
A split in the blockchain, resulting in two separate branches, an original and a new alternate version of the cryptocurrency. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run simultaneously on different parts of the network. For example, Bitcoin Cash is a Bitcoin fork. FOMO:
Fear of missing out. Frictionless:
A system is frictionless when there are zero transaction costs or trading retraints. FUD:
Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt regarding the crypto market. Gas:
A fee paid to run transactions, dapps and smart contracts on Ethereum. Halving:
A 50% decrease in block reward after the mining of a pre-specified number of blocks. Every 4 years, the “reward” for successfully mining a block of bitcoin is reduced by half. This is referred to as “Halving”. Hardware wallet:
Physical wallet devices that can securely store cryptocurrency maximally. Some examples are Ledger Nano S**,** Digital Bitbox and more**.** Hash:
The process that takes input data of varying sizes, performs an operation on it and converts it into a fixed size output. It cannot be reversed. Hashing:
The process by which you mine bitcoin or similar cryptocurrency, by trying to solve the mathematical problem within it, using cryptographic hash functions. HODL:
A Bitcoin enthusiast once accidentally misspelled the word HOLD and it is now part of the bitcoin legend. It can also mean hold on for dear life. ICO (Initial Coin Offering):
A blockchain-based fundraising mechanism, or a public crowd sale of a new digital coin, used to raise capital from supporters for an early stage crypto venture. Beware of these as there have been quite a few scams in the past. John mcAfee:
A man who will one day eat his balls on live television for falsely predicting bitcoin going to 100k. He has also become a small meme within the crypto community for his outlandish claims. JOMO:
Joy of missing out. For those who are so depressed about missing out their sadness becomes joy. KYC:
Know your customer(alternatively consumer). Lambo:
This stands for Lamborghini. A small meme within the investing community where the moment someone gets rich they spend their earnings on a lambo. One day we will all have lambos in crypto-valhalla. Ledger:
Away from Blockchain, it is a book of financial transactions and balances. In the world of crypto, the blockchain functions as a ledger. A digital currency’s ledger records all transactions which took place on a certain block chain network. Leverage:
Trading with borrowed capital (margin) in order to increase the potential return of an investment. Liquidity:
The availability of an asset to be bought and sold easily, without affecting its market price.
of the coins. Margin trading:
The trading of assets or securities bought with borrowed money. Market cap/MCAP:
A short-term for Market Capitalization. Market Capitalization refers to the market value of a particular cryptocurrency. It is computed by multiplying the Price of an individual unit of coins by the total circulating supply. Miner:
A computer participating in any cryptocurrency network performing proof of work. This is usually done to receive block rewards. Mining:
The act of solving a complex math equation to validate a blockchain transaction using computer processing power and specialized hardware. Mining contract:
A method of investing in bitcoin mining hardware, allowing anyone to rent out a pre-specified amount of hashing power, for an agreed amount of time. The mining service takes care of hardware maintenance, hosting and electricity costs, making it simpler for investors. Mining rig:
A computer specially designed for mining cryptocurrencies. Mooning:
A situation the price of a coin rapidly increases in value. Can also be used as: “I hope bitcoin goes to the moon” Node:
Any computing device that connects to the blockchain network. Open source:
The practice of sharing the source code for a piece of computer software, allowing it to be distributed and altered by anyone. OTC:
Over the counter. Trading is done directly between parties. P2P (Peer to Peer):
A type of network connection where participants interact directly with each other rather than through a centralized third party. The system allows the exchange of resources from A to B, without having to go through a separate server. Paper wallet:
A form of “cold storage” where the private keys are printed onto a piece of paper and stored offline. Considered as one of the safest crypto wallets, the truth is that it majors in sweeping coins from your wallets. Pre mining:
The mining of a cryptocurrency by its developers before it is released to the public. Proof of stake (POS):
A consensus distribution algorithm which essentially rewards you based upon the amount of the coin that you own. In other words, more investment in the coin will leads to more gain when you mine with this protocol In Proof of Stake, the resource held by the “miner” is their stake in the currency. PROOF OF WORK (POW)
The competition of computers competing to solve a tough crypto math problem. The first computer that does this is allowed to create new blocks and record information.” The miner is then usually rewarded via transaction fees. Protocol:
A standardized set of rules for formatting and processing data. Public key / private key:
A cryptographic code that allows a user to receive cryptocurrencies into an account. The public key is made available to everyone via a publicly accessible directory, and the private key remains confidential to its respective owner. Because the key pair is mathematically related, whatever is encrypted with a public key may only be decrypted by its corresponding private key. Pump and dump:
Massive buying and selling activity of cryptocurrencies (sometimes organized and to one’s benefit) which essentially result in a phenomenon where the significant surge in the value of coin followed by a huge crash take place in a short time frame. Recovery phrase:
A set of phrases you are given whereby you can regain or access your wallet should you lose the private key to your wallets — paper, mobile, desktop, and hardware wallet. These phrases are some random 12–24 words. A recovery Phrase can also be called as Recovery seed, Seed Key, Recovery Key, or Seed Phrase. REKT:
Referring to the word “wrecked”. It defines a situation whereby an investor or trader who has been ruined utterly following the massive losses suffered in crypto industry. Ripple:
An alternative payment network to Bitcoin based on similar cryptography. The ripple network uses XRP as currency and is capable of sending any asset type. ROI:
Return on investment. Safu:
A crypto term for safe popularized by the Bizonnaci YouTube channel after the CEO of Binance tweeted
“Funds are safe." “the exchage I use got hacked!”“Oh no, are your funds safu?” “My coins better be safu!”
The smallest fraction of a bitcoin is called a “satoshi” or “sat”. It represents one hundred-millionth of a bitcoin and is named after Satoshi Nakamoto. Satoshi Nakamoto:
This was the pseudonym for the mysterious creator of Bitcoin. Scalability:
The ability of a cryptocurrency to contain the massive use of its Blockchain. Sharding:
A scaling solution for the Blockchain. It is generally a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds. Shitcoin:
Coin with little potential or future prospects. Shill:
Spreading buzz by heavily promoting a particular coin in the community to create awareness. Short position:
Selling of a specific cryptocurrency with an expectation that it will drop in value. Silk road:
The online marketplace where drugs and other illicit items were traded for Bitcoin. This marketplace is using accessed through “TOR”, and VPNs. In October 2013, a Silk Road was shut down in by the FBI. Smart Contract:
Certain computational benchmarks or barriers that have to be met in turn for money or data to be deposited or even be used to verify things such as land rights. Software Wallet:
A crypto wallet that exists purely as software files on a computer. Usually, software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources. Solidity:
A cryptocoin with an extremely low volatility that can be used to trade against the overall market. Staking:
Staking is the process of actively participating in transaction validation (similar to mining) on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. On these blockchains, anyone with a minimum-required balance of a specific cryptocurrency can validate transactions and earn Staking rewards. Surge:
When a crypto currency appreciates or goes up in price. Tank:
The opposite of mooning. When a coin tanks it can also be described as crashing. Tendies
For traders , the chief prize is “tendies” (chicken tenders, the treat an overgrown man-child receives for being a “Good Boy”) . Token:
A unit of value that represents a digital asset built on a blockchain system. A token is usually considered as a “coin” of a cryptocurrency, but it really has a wider functionality. TOR:
“The Onion Router” is a free web browser designed to protect users’ anonymity and resist censorship. Tor is usually used surfing the web anonymously and access sites on the “Darkweb”. Transaction fee:
An amount of money users are charged from their transaction when sending cryptocurrencies. Volatility:
A measure of fluctuations in the price of a financial instrument over time. High volatility in bitcoin is seen as risky since its shifting value discourages people from spending or accepting it. Wallet:
A file that stores all your private keys and communicates with the blockchain to perform transactions. It allows you to send and receive bitcoins securely as well as view your balance and transaction history. Whale:
An investor that holds a tremendous amount of cryptocurrency. Their extraordinary large holdings allow them to control prices and manipulate the market. Whitepaper:
A comprehensive report or guide made to understand an issue or help decision making. It is also seen as a technical write up that most cryptocurrencies provide to take a deep look into the structure and plan of the cryptocurrency/Blockchain project. Satoshi Nakamoto was the first to release a whitepaper on Bitcoin, titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” in late 2008.
And with that I finally complete my odyssey. I sincerely hope that this helped you and if you are new, I welcome you to crypto. If you read all of that I hope it increased, you in knowledge.
my final definition: Crypto-Family:
A collection of all the HODLers and crypto fanatics. A place where all people alike unite over a love for crypto.
We are all in this together as we pioneer the new world that is crypto currency. I wish you a great day and Happy HODLing.
feel free to comment words or terms that you feel should be included or about any errors I made.
Edit1:some fixes were made and added words.
Wie funktioniert die Bitcoin Code App? Für alle Finanzmärkte gelten komplexe mathematische Strukturen. Für die Anleger bedeutet das, dass es unmöglich ist, sämtliche möglichen Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung in ihre Handelsentscheidungen einfließen zu lassen.Sie müssen sich also diverse Statistiken und Charts zu Hilfe nehmen, welche ihnen beispielsweise der eigene Broker zur Verfügung stellt. Security vulnerabilities related to Bitcoin : List of vulnerabilities related to any product of this vendor. Cvss scores, vulnerability details and links to full CVE details and references (e.g.: CVE-2009-1234 or 2010-1234 or 20101234) Log In Register. Vulnerability Feeds & Widgets New www.itsecdb.com Home Browse : Vendors Products Vulnerabilities By Date Vulnerabilities By Type Reports : CVSS ... Many thousands of articles have been written purporting to explain Bitcoin, the online, peer-to-peer currency. Most of those articles give a hand-wavy account of the underlying cryptographic protocol, omitting many details. Even those articles which delve deeper often gloss over crucial points. My aim in this post is It is tempting instead to take Bitcoin as given, and to engage in speculation about how to get rich with Bitcoin, whether Bitcoin is a bubble, whether Bitcoin might one day mean the end of taxation, and so on. That’s fun, but severely limits your understanding. Understanding the details of the Bitcoin protocol opens up otherwise inaccessible vistas. In particular, it’s the basis for ... Implementation Details. The initial implementation expected in Bitcoin Core 0.12.0 uses the following rules: One or more transactions currently in the mempool (original transactions) will be replaced by a new transaction (replacement transaction) that spends one or more of the same inputs if, The original transactions signal replaceability explicitly or through inheritance as described in the ...
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